Tag Archives: CSAIL

Fabricate drones with a wide range

This fall’s new Federal Aviation Administration regulations have made drone flight easier than ever for both companies and consumers. But what if the drones out on the market aren’t exactly what you want?

A new system from MIT’s Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (CSAIL) is the first to allow users to design, simulate, and build their own custom drone. Users can change the size, shape, and structure of their drone based on the specific needs they have for payload, cost, flight time, battery usage, and other factors.

To demonstrate, researchers created a range of unusual-looking drones, including a five-rotor “pentacopter” and a rabbit-shaped “bunnycopter” with propellers of different sizes and rotors of different heights.

“This system opens up new possibilities for how drones look and function,” says MIT Professor Wojciech Matusik, who oversaw the project in CSAIL’s Computational Fabrication Group. “It’s no longer a one-size-fits-all approach for people who want to make and use drones for particular purposes.”

The interface lets users design drones with different propellers, rotors, and rods. It also provides guarantees that the drones it fabricates can take off, hover and land — which is no simple task considering the intricate technical trade-offs associated with drone weight, shape, and control.

“For example, adding more rotors generally lets you carry more weight, but you also need to think about how to balance the drone to make sure it doesn’t tip,” says PhD student Tao Du, who was first author on a related paper about the system. “Irregularly-shaped drones are very difficult to stabilize, which means that they require establishing very complex control parameters.”

Du and Matusik co-authored a paper with PhD student Adriana Schulz, postdoc Bo Zhu, and Assistant Professor Bernd Bickel of IST Austria. It will be presented next week at the annual SIGGRAPH Asia conference in Macao, China.

Today’s commercial drones only come in a small range of options, typically with an even number of rotors and upward-facing propellers. But there are many emerging use cases for other kinds of drones. For example, having an odd number of rotors might create a clearer view for a drone’s camera, or allow the drone to carry objects with unusual shapes.

Designing these less conventional drones, however, often requires expertise in multiple disciplines, including control systems, fabrication, and electronics.

“Developing multicopters like these that are actually flyable involves a lot of trial-and-error, tweaking the balance between all the propellers and rotors,” says Du. “It would be more or less impossible for an amateur user, especially one without any computer-science background.”

But the CSAIL group’s new system makes the process much easier. Users design drones by choosing from a database of parts and specifying their needs for things like payload, cost, and battery usage. The system computes the sizes of design elements like rod lengths and motor angles, and looks at metrics such as torque and thrust to determine whether the design will actually work. It also uses an “LQR controller” that takes information about a drone’s characteristics and surroundings to optimize its flight plan.

One of the project’s core challenges stemmed from the fact that a drone’s shape and structure (its “geometry”) is usually strongly tied to how it has been programmed to move (its “control”). To overcome this, researchers used what’s called an “alternating direction method,” which means that they reduced the number of variables by fixing some of them and optimizing the rest. This allowed the team to decouple the variables of geometry and control in a way that optimizes the drone’s performance.

“Once you decouple these variables, you turn a very complicated optimization problem into two easy sub-problems that we already have techniques for solving,” says Du. He envisions future versions of the system that could proactively give design suggestions, like recommending where a rotor should go to accommodate a desired payload.

“This is the first system in which users can interactively design a drone that incorporates both geometry and control,” says Nobuyuki Umetani, a research scientist at Autodesk, Inc., who was not involved in the paper. “This is very exciting work that has the potential to change the way people design.”

The project was supported, in part, by the National Science Foundation, the Air Force Research Laboratory and the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program.

Provided key Knowladge

This week the Association for Computer Machinery (ACM) announced its 2016 fellows, which include four principal investigators from MIT’s Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (CSAIL): professors Erik Demaine, Fredo Durand, William Freeman, and Daniel Jackson. They were among the 1 percent of ACM members to receive the distinction.

“Erik, Fredo, Bill, and Daniel are wonderful colleagues and extraordinary computer scientists, and I am so happy to see their contributions recognized with the most prestigious member grade of the ACM,” says CSAIL Director Daniela Rus, who herself was named a fellow last year. “All of us at CSAIL are very proud of these researchers for receiving these esteemed honors.”

ACM’s 53 fellows for 2016 were named for their distinctive contributions spanning such computer science disciplines as computer vision, computer graphics, software design, machine learning, algorithms, and theoretical computer science.

“As nearly 100,000 computing professionals are members of our association, to be selected to join the top 1 percent is truly an honor,” says ACM President Vicki L. Hanson. “Fellows are chosen by their peers and hail from leading universities, corporations and research labs throughout the world. Their inspiration, insights and dedication bring immeasurable benefits that improve lives and help drive the global economy. ”

Demaine was selected for contributions to geometric computing, data structures, and graph algorithms. His research interests include the geometry of understanding how proteins fold and the computational difficulty of playing games. He received the MacArthur Fellowship for his work in computational geometry. He and his father Martin Demaine have produced numerous curved-crease sculptures that explore the intersection of science and art — and that are currently in the Museum of Modern Art in New York.

A Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS) professor whose research spans video graphics and photo-generation, Durand was selected for contributions to computational photography and computer graphics rendering. He also works to develop new algorithms to enable image enhancements and improved scene understanding. He received the ACM SIGGRAPH Computer Graphics Achievement Award in 2016.

Freeman is the Thomas and Gerd Perkins Professor of EECS at MIT. He was selected as a fellow for his contributions to computer vision, machine learning, and computer graphics. His research interests also include Bayesian models of visual perception and computational photography. He received “Outstanding Paper” awards at computer vision and machine learning conferences in 1997, 2006, 2009 and 2012, as well as ACM’s “Test of Time” awards for papers from 1990 and 1995.

Jackson is an EECS professor and associate director of CSAIL whose work has focused on improving the functionality and dependability of software through lightweight formal methods. He was selected by ACM for contributions to software modeling and the creation of Alloy, a modeling language that has been used to find flaws in many designs and protocols. He is a MacVicar Fellow and also received this year’s ACM SIGSOFT Impact Paper Award.

Computers that explain themselves

Machines that predict the future, robots that patch wounds, and wireless emotion-detectors are just a few of the exciting projects that came out of MIT’s Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (CSAIL) this year. Here’s a sampling of 16 highlights from 2016 that span the many computer science disciplines that make up CSAIL.

Robots for exploring Mars — and your stomach

  • A team led by CSAIL director Daniela Rus developed an ingestible origami robot that unfolds in the stomach to patch wounds and remove swallowed batteries.
  • Researchers are working on NASA’s humanoid robot, “Valkyrie,” who will be programmed for trips into outer space and to autonomously perform tasks.
  • A 3-D printed robot was made of both solids and liquids and printed in one single step, with no assembly required.

Keeping data safe and secure

  • CSAIL hosted a cyber summit that convened members of academia, industry, and government, including featured speakers Admiral Michael Rogers, director of the National Security Agency; and Andrew McCabe, deputy director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation.
  • Researchers came up with a system for staying anonymous online that uses less bandwidth to transfer large files between anonymous users.
  • A deep-learning system called AI2 was shown to be able to predict 85 percent of cyberattacks with the help of some human input.

Advancements in computer vision

  • A new imaging technique called Interactive Dynamic Video lets you reach in and “touch” objects in videos using a normal camera.
  • Researchers from CSAIL and Israel’s Weizmann Institute of Science produced a movie display called Cinema 3D that uses special lenses and mirrors to allow viewers to watch 3-D movies in a theater without having to wear those clunky 3-D glasses.
  • A new deep-learning algorithm can predict human interactions more accurately than ever before, by training itself on footage from TV shows like “Desperate Housewives” and “The Office.”
  • A group from MIT and Harvard University developed an algorithm that may help astronomers produce the first image of a black hole, stitching together telescope data to essentially turn the planet into one large telescope dish.

Tech to help with health

  • A team produced a robot that can help schedule and assign tasks by learning from humans, in fields like medicine and the military.
  • Researchers came up with an algorithm for identifying organs in fetal MRI scans to extensively evaluate prenatal health.
  • A wireless device called EQ-Radio can tell if you’re excited, happy, angry, or sad, by measuring breathing and heart rhythms.

Algorithms, systems and networks

  • A system called “Polaris” was found to load web pages 34 percent faster by decreasing network trips.
  • A team analyzed ant-colony behavior to create better algorithms for network communication, for applications such as social networks and collective decision-making among robot swarms.
  • Researchers trained neural networks to explain themselves by providing rationales for their decisions.